Constituted as 316th Transport Group on 2 Feb 1942 and activated on 14 Feb. Redesignated 316th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Trained with C-47 and C-5 aircraft. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, assigned to Ninth AF, and began operations in Nov 1942. Transported supplies and evacuated casualties in support of the Allied drive across North Africa. In May 1943 began training for the invasion of Sicily; dropped paratroops over the assault area on the night of 9 Jul. Carried reinforcements to Sicily on 11 Jul and received a DUC for carrying out that mission although severely attacked by ground and naval forces. Received another DUC for supporting aerial and ground operations in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Sicily, 25 Nov 1942-25 Aug 1943, by transporting reinforcements and supplies. Assigned to Twelfth AF and moved to Sicily to take part in the invasion of Italy; dropped paratroops over the beachhead south of the Sele River on the night of 14 Sep 1943. Transported cargo in the theater until Feb 1944, then joined Ninth AF in England and prepared for the inyasion of France. Dropped paratroops near Ste-Mere-Eglise on D-Day 1944 and flew a reinforcement mission on 7 Jun, receiving a third DUC for these operations. During the air attack on Holland in Sep 1944, dropped paratroops and released gliders carrying reinforcements. Dropped paratroops near Wesel on 24 Mar 1945 when the Allies made the airborne assault across the Rhine. Also provided transport services in Europe while not engaged in airborne operations. Hauled supplies such as ammunition, gasoline, water, and rations; evacuated wounded personnel to rear-zone hospitals.
Returned to the US in May 1945. Trained with C-82 and C-119 aircraft. Redesignated 316th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 1948, 316th Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in Oct 1949, and 316th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jan 1950. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to Japan on 15 Nov 1954. Assigned to Far East Air Forces, manned, and equipped with C-119's.
Squadrons. 16th: 1950-1954. 36th: 1942-. 37th: 1942-. 38th: 1942. 44th: 1942-1945. 45th: 1942-1945. 75th: 1945-1949, 1952-. 77th: 1945-1946.
Stations. Patterson Field, Ohio, Feb 1942; Bowman Field, Ky, 17 Jun 1942; Lawson Field, Ga, Aug 1942; Del Valle, Tex, 29 Sep-12 Nov 1942; Deversoir, Egypt, 23 Nov 1942; El Adem, Egypt, 10 Dec 1942; Fayid, Egypt, Jan 1943; Nouvion, Algeria, 9 May 1943; Guercif, French Morocco, 29 May 1943; Enfidaville, Tunisia, 21 Jun 1943; Mazzara, Sicily, 3 Sep 1943; Borizzo, Sicily, 18 Oct 1943-1 Feb 1944; Cottesmore, England, 15 Feb 1944-May 1945; Pope Field, NC, 25 May 1945; Greenville AAB, SC, 25 Aug 1947; Smyrna AFB, Tenn, 4 Nov 1949-15 Nov 1954; Ashiya, Japan, 15 Nov 1954-.
Commanders. Col Jerome B McCauley, 14 Feb 1942; Lt COl Burton R Fleet, Aug 1943; Col Harvey A Berger, c. 1 May 1944; Lt Col Walter R Washburn, Sep 1945; Lt Col Leonard C Fletcher, 1 Sep 1945; Col Jerome B McCauley, 5 Oct 1945; COl Clarence J Galligan, 2 Feb 1946: Lt Col Leroy M Stanton, 31 Sep 1946; Co] Clarence Galligan, 1 Nov 1946; Col John H Lackey Jr, c. Apr 1947; Col Edgar W Hampton, 20 Sep 1947; Col Norton H Van Sicklen III, 1 Aug 1950; Maj Dwight E Maul, 31 Aug 1950; Maj Gordon F Blood, 6 Sep 1950; Col Norton H Van Sicklen III, 28 Dec 1950; Col William H DeLacey, 1 Jun 1952; Col Richard P Carr, Nov 1954; Col William C Lindley, 19 Mar 1955-.
Campaigns. American Theater; Egypt-Libya; Tunisia; Sicily; Naples-Foggia; Rome-Arno; Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; Central Europe.
Decorations. Distinguished Unit Citations: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Sicily, 25 Nov 1942-25 Aug 1943; Sicily, 11 Jul 1943; France, Jun 1944.
Insigne. Shield: Azure, nine parachutes argent, three, two, three, and one, all within a bordure per bend or and gules. Motto: Valor Without Arms. (Approved 17 Aug 1951.)
Data from Air Force Combat Units of World War II By Maurer, Maurer, Published 1986